Malaria and Nutritional Status of Children in Anambra State, Nigeria
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology,
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity especially in children less than five years of age. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between malaria infection and nutritional status of some purposely selected children aged 0–36 months from hospitals in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data were collected on nutritional status using anthropometric data – age, height, weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). Malaria infection status was obtained through microscopic examination of thick films blood smears. The prevalence of malnutrition (weight-for-height Z - scores) among malaria uninfected in the community and hospital surveys was 26.7% and 9.2% respectively, while the prevalence among the malaria parasite infected children was 21.4% and 7.4% in the community and hospital respectively. The average number of malnourished children with Z-scores <-2SD were slightly higher than WHO standard. More malaria infected boys had Z-scores <-2SD compared to the WHO standard. Prevalence of malnutrition based on MUAC among malaria parasite infected children was very high (100% and 98.1% in community and hospital, respectively). The average number of stunted (height-for-age Z-score) children in both community and hospital survey was very high compare to WHO standard. It may be concluded that there is a high rate of malnutrition based on MUAC among malaria infected children in Anambra State.
- nutritional status
- Anambra State.
How to Cite
WHO. The World malaria report 2019 at a glance. This year’s report at a glance. www.who.int › Newsroom › Feature stories › Detail; 2019.
Lauren MC, Miriam KL. Malaria in children. Paediatric Clinic North America, 2017;64(4):851–866.
World Health Organization. Severe falciparum malaria. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2000;94(1):1–90.
WHO. Facts sheets – Malnutrition –World Health Organization. www.who.int › fact sheets › detail; 2020.
Paediatric Malaria: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology. Medscape; 2020. Available:https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/998942-clinical
NagadattaNayak› diagnosis-and-. Diagnosis and Management of malaria in children. A presentation by Nagadatta Nayak; 2016. Available:www.slideshare.net
Gone T, Lemango F, Eliso E, Yohannes S, Yohannes T. The association between malaria and malnutrition among under-five children in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia: A case-control study. Infect Disease Poverty, 2017;6:9.
WHO child growth standards and the identification of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund; 2006. Available:https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/severemalnutrition/9789241598163_eng
Fighting child malnutrition around the world; 2018. Available:https://www.worldvision.org/health-news-stories/fighting-child-malnutrition-around-world
Unicef for every growing child. The state of the world's children 2019 growing well in a changing world; 2019. Available:https://www.unicef.org/media/60806/file/SOWC-2019.pdf
Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ. Somali food shelters in the Ogaden famine and their impact on health. Lancet. 1976;1:1283-1285.
Oldenburg E, Guerin PJ, Berthé F, Grais RF, Isanaka S. Malaria and nutritional status among children with severe acute malnutrition in Niger: A prospective cohort study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2018; 67:7.
Irene Ule Ngole, Sumbele, Orelien S. Mtopi Bopda, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, Teh Rene Ning, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji. Nutritional status of children in a malaria meso endemic area: Cross sectional study on prevalence, intensity, predictors, influence on malaria parasitaemia and anaemia severity. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1099.
Das D, Grais RF, Okiro EA, Stepniewska K, Mansoor R, van der Kam S, Terlouw DJ, Tarning J, Barnes KI , Guerin PJ. Complex interactions between malaria and malnutrition: a systematic literature review. BMC Medicine. 2018;16: 186
Umma Abudullahi I, Robinson W, Faruk J, Gwarzo GD. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among febrile Nigeria children with severe malnutrition in North-western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic Clinical Science. 2017;2(14):113 - 6
Ajakaye OG, Ibukunoluwa MR. Prevalence and risk of malaria, anaemia and malnutrition among children in IDPs camp in Edo State, Nigeria; 2019. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337624139_Prevalence_and_risk_of_malaria_anemia_and_malnutrition_among_children_in_IDPs_camp_in_Edo_State_Nigeria
Ministry of Lands and Survey, Awka. Map of Anambra State, Nigeria; 2010.
Osei AK, Hamer AH. Management of Paediatric malaria: Role of nutritional interventions. Annals Nestle. 2008;66(1): 31–47.
Akubuogwo EI, Okafor IN, Ezebuno FC, Nwaka AC, Okafor SO. Prevalence of stunting among pre – school age children from selected towns in Anambra South senatorial zone. International Journal of Life Science, Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research Hyderabad, India. 2013;2(4):2250–3137.
Fishman S, Caulfield L, deOnis M, Blossner M, Hyder A, Mullany L, Black RE. Malnutrition and the global burden of disease: Underweight. Comparative quantification of health risks: The global and regional burden of disease due to 25 selected major risk factors. Cambridge. WHO/Harvard University Press; 2004.
Afolabi BM, Afolabi TM, Ogunwale A. A- 2 Month intervention study of preventive clothing against mosquito bites among malnourished and well- nourished children under 5 years of age living on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Lagos, southwest Nigerian. Malaria Journal. 2020;19:61.
Nnanyelugo DO. Major nutritional problems of children in Nigeria and possible solutions – Anambra State experience; 2013. Available:www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/pubmed/6667895
UNICEF. UNICEF Nigeria situation report; 2013. Available:www.unicef.org/apeals.../UNICEF_ Ngeria_SitRep_February_2013
Laura M, Kritsanai Y, Niphon C, Nilawan B, Anintita L, Scott RM, Steven R, Meshnick Robert A, Gasser JR, Chansuda W. Haematological and clinical indices of malaria in a semi - immune population of western Thailand. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2004; 70(1):8-14.
Anumudu MA, Igwe MN, Keshinro O. Nutritional anaemia and malaria in pre-school and school aged children. Annals of African Medicine. 2008;7(1):11 – 17.
Okeke TA, Uzochukwu BS, Okafor HU. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers’ perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigeria community. Malaria Journal. 2006;5:9-79.
Joyce KK, Walker AF, Collett A, Tumwine JK. Risk factor for early childhood malnutrition in Uganda. Paediatrics. 1998;102(4):45.
Hassen HY, Ali JH. Influence of wasting and underweight on malaria status among Ethiopian children aged 6 -59 months: A facility based case control study. General Medicine. 2015;3(3):1000190.
Friedman JF, Kwena AM, Mirel LB, Kariuki SK, Terlouw DJ, Phillips Howard PA, Hawle WA, Nahlen BL, Ping Shi YA. Ter Kuile FO. Malaria and nutritional status among pre-school children: results from cross-sectional surveys in western Kenya. American Journal of Medicine and Hygiene. 2005; 73:698 – 704.
Scrimshaw NS, SanGiovanni JP. Synergism of nutrition, infection, and immunity: An overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997;66:4645–4775.
Okoroigwe FC, Okeke EC. Nutritional status of pre – school children aged 2– 5 years in Aguata L. G.A. of Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Nutritional and Metabolism. 2009;1(1):009–013.
Ibeanu V, Okeke E, Onyechi U, Ejiofor U. Assessment of anthropometric indices, Iron and Zinc status of pre – school children in a peri – urban community in south east Nigeria. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2012;12(05): 1213–2727.
Ajibaye OI, Osuntoki AA, Orok AB, Iwalokun BA, Faneye OA, Akinnibosun OA. Nutritional status influenced pro- inflammatory cytokine response in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in Nigeria. Paper presented at the National Conference of Multilateral Initiatives on Malaria Management in Nigeria. 2013;45.
James J. Impact of nutrition on the national education and health growth. Amazines. 2010;1:11.
Alexandre MAA, Benzecry SG, Siqueira AM, Victor – Siva S, Melo GC, Monteiro WM. The association between nutritional status and malaria in children from a rural community in the Amazonian Region: A longitudinal study. PloSNegl. Trop. Dis. 2015;9(4):0003743
Brien O’, Amza KSA, Oldenburg CE. Anthropometry and malaria among children in Nigeria: a cross sectional study. American Journal of Medicine and Hygiene. 2018;99(3):665 - 669
Feireira ED, ldexandre A, MA, Monteiro. Association between anthropometry- based nutritional study and malaria: A systematic review of observational studies. Malaria Journal. 2015;14:346 Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936 -015-0870-5
Abstract View: 662 times
PDF Download: 323 times