Evaluation of the Microbial Contamination of Some Snacks: A Case Study of Lagos Mainland, Lagos State, Nigeria
Asian Journal of Research in Zoology,
This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial contamination of some locally prepared snacks sold by street vendors in Lagos mainland, Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of (20) twenty snack samples- Meat-pie, Sausage roll, Egg roll, Puff puff and Doughnut were aseptically purchased in a sterilized polythene bags from four different locations in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area. The snacks were analyzed by standard microbiological methods using Bergey’s manual to determine the colony-forming units per gram, to isolate and determine the number of microbiological population contaminants. Unilag showed the bacteria count on snacks as follows: Meat-pie 1.50 × 106 cfu/ g), Sausage 2.20× 106 cfu/ g, Doughnut 3.20× 105 cfu/ g, Puffpuff 1.58x 106 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 9.80x105 cfµ/ g. At Yaba - Meat pie had bacteria count of 1.82x102cfµ / g, Sausage 7.00x101cfµ / g, Doughnut 1.09x 102 cfµ /g, Puff puff 3.64x104 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 5.00x101 cfµ/g. Snacks from Oyingbo had no growth on Meat pie, Doughnut and Puff puff but had bacteria cou nts on Sausage (1.00x102) and on Egg roll (1.95× 105 cfµ/ g).At Abule-Oja- Meat pie had bacteria count of 9.75x104 cfµ/ g, Puff puff 1.65x105 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 1.95x105 cfu/ g.The location with lowest bacteria count was Oyingbo which had no growth on a Meat pie, Doughnut and Puff puff, but had on Sausage 1.00x102 cfµ/ g and Egg roll 9.60x102 cfµ/ g. There were no coliforms in all the locations. Bacteria percentage range was 10.52% to 36.84%while Fungi percentage range was 0.71% - 37.59%. Four bacteria and seven fungi were identified: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus delbruckii with Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Trichoderma spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. Bacillus cereus had the highest prevalence of 36.84%, Bacillus substillis 31.58%, Staphylococcus aureus 21.05% and Lactobacillus delbruckii 10.52%. Bacillus species were present at all sampled sites. It is concluded that the quality of these snacks can be improved by following quality control protocol and good manufacturing practices (GMP) in food.
How to Cite
Campos J, Gil J, Mourao J, Peixe L, Antunes P. Ready to eat street- vended food as a potential vehicle of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: An exploratory study in the Porto region, Portugal. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2006:1-6.
Winarno FG, Allain A. Street Foods in Developing Countries: Lessons From Asia.
Nonato IL, Minussi LOA, Pascoal GB. Nutritional Issues Concerning Street Foods. J Clin. Nutr. Diet. 2016,2:7.
Guidelines for the microbiological examination of Ready - to - eat foods.
Food Technology & Processing.
Nwachukwu E, Juliet N. The extent of pathogenic bacterial contamination of egg rolls sold by hawkers in Delta state, Nigeria. J. Bacteriol. Mycol. Open Access. 2018;6(2):127–128.
Falegan CR, Akoja SO, Oyarekua MA. Microbiological assessment of Suya (sliced roasted beef) in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis, Ekiti State, Nigeria. MOJ. Biol. Med. 2017;2(3): 266‒269.
Karoki WH, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW. Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya. International Journal of Food Science. 2018:3861265.
Hygiene and Environmental Health Module: 9. Foodborne Diseases and the Investigation of Disease Outbreaks.
CDC. Preliminary Food Net data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food. Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep. 2010;59(14):418-422.
Medical Definition of Foodborne Disease.
WHO. WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases: foodborne disease burden epidemiology reference group 2007-2015. I. World Health Organization; 2015.
Causes and prevention of foodborne illness, the University of Rhode Island.
CDC. Global diarrheal burden; 2015.
Bintsis T. Foodborne pathogens. J. AIMS Microbiology. 2017;3(3):529-563. DOI:10.3934/Microbiol.2017.3.529
Nzeka UM. Steady Growth of Nigeria’s Retail Food Sector. Global Agricultural Information. 2011;21:17-25.
Our food trucks, cafés and custom catering offer an experience for students and outstanding food for you or your event.
Alimi BA. Risk factors in street food practices in developing countries: A review. Food Science and Human Wellness; 2016.
Rather IA, Koh WY, Paek WK, Lim J. The sources of chemical contaminants in food and their health implications. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;8:830.
Bukar A, Uba A, Oyeyi TI. Antimicrobial profile of Moringa oleifera lam. Extracts against some Foodborne Microorganisms. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2010;3(1):43 – 48.
Dubey RC, Maheshwari DK. Practical Microbology. I.K International Publisher, New Delhi; 2008.
Okojie PW, Essy Clementina Ish. Food hygiene knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. 2019;43(6):528-535.
Oje OA, Okpashi EV, Uzor JC, Uma UO, Irogbolu AO and Onwurah INE. Effect of Acid and Alkaline Pretreatment on the Production of Biosurfactant from Rice Husk Using Mucor indicus. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 2016;10:60-67.
Harrigan WF, McCance ME. Laboratory methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Academic Press Inc. Limited, London; 1976.
Laboratory Studies in Applied Microbiology, Advance Laboratory: Using Bergey’s Manuals.
Okoli CE, Njoga EO, Enem SI, Godwin EE, Nwanta, JA, Chah KF. Prevalence, toxigenic potential and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus isolated from ready-to-eat meats. Vet World. 2018;11(9):1214–1221.
DOI: 10.14202/vet world.2018.1214-1221
Egege SR, Akani NP, Nwankwo CE I. Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ready-to-Eat Shellfish (Corbiculid heterodont) in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Microbiology Research Journal International. (2020;30(3):22-35.
Dechasa AM, Sina TT. Prevalence of Microorganisms of Public Health Significance in Ready-to-Eat Foods Sold in Developing Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Food Science. 2020;8867250.
Staph infections. Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition.
what Does an Oral Staph Infection Look Like, and How Do I Treat It? Medically reviewed by Christine Frank and written by Jill Seladi-Schulman; 2019.
Lafon T, Hernandez Padilla AC, Baisse A. Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria: A warning microbiologi- cal marker for infective endocarditis?. BMC Infect. Dis. 2019;19 504.
Ayoade A, Salako S, Sowole A. Assessment of Road Side Snacks' Microbiological Qualities in Ilese-Ijebu Southwestern Nigeria: Implications on Packaging and Bioaerosol Monitoring. Microbiology; 2018.
Bukar AM, Isa YA, Garba AA, Muhammad I, Sulaiman MM. Bacteriological quality assessment of some snacks sold in fast food shop within Maiduguri metropolitan council. Applied Research Journal. 2015;1(10):501-505.
Acheampong BE. Assessment of food hygiene practicesby street food vendors and microbial quality of selected foods sold. A Study at Dunkwa-On-Offin, Upper Denkyira East Municipality of the Central Region. Journal of Food Protection. 2015;2:3-4.
Mc Dowell RH, Sands EM, Friedman H. Bacillus Cereus. In: Stat Pearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): Stat Pearls Publishing; 2020.
Nwachukwu MO, Azorji JN, Onyebuagu PC, Nnadozie RIA, Izundu MI. Microbiological Quality of Food Sold in Different Grades of Mobile Food Vendors and Canteens in Owerri Metropolis. International Journal of Pathogen Research. 2020;4(4):12-21.
Yu S, Yu P, Wang J, Li C, Guo H, Liu C, Kong L, Yu L, Wu S, Lei T, Chen M, Zeng H, Pang R, Zhang Y, Wei X, Zhang J, Wu Q, Ding Y. A study on prevalence and characterization of Bacillus cereus in Ready-to-Eat Foods in China. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2020;10:3043.
Sheikh-Ali SI, Akil A, Mohd-Setapar SH, Hoque EM. The Potential Hazards of Aspergillus sp in Foods and Feeds, and the Role of Biological Treatment: A Review. The Journal of Microbiology. 2014;52(10):807-818.
Modupeade CA, Obinna TE, Lubanza N, Mulunda M. Phylogenetic diversity and prevalence of microflora in ready-to-eat supermarket and roadside-vended peanuts. Mycologia; 2020.
WHO. Mycotoxins; 2018.
Abstract View: 241 times
PDF Download: 178 times