Asian Journal of Research in Zoology 2022-01-18T04:26:04+00:00 Asian Journal of Research in Zoology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in&nbsp;Zoology (ISSN: 2582-466X)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRIZ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Zoology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> The Conclusion of ‘Lateral Flow between Bald and Vegetation Patches Induces the Degradation of Alpine Meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’ is Inaccurate 2022-01-13T08:36:31+00:00 Wenjing Li <p>The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “The Conclusion of ‘Lateral Flow between Bald and Vegetation Patches Induces the Degradation of Alpine Meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’ is Inaccurate”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.</p> 2021-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the Efficacy of Some Plant Oil Extracts in the Management of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) 2021-09-28T02:30:34+00:00 P. O. Ukatu L. J. Agah E. D. Elemi M. Agenyi M. U. Agim V. T. Ebu <p>Four-way olfactometer was used to evaluate Laboratory repellency activities of <em>Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas </em>and <em>Dennitia tripetala </em>oil extracts on <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> at 10µl of each oil. Each arm of the olfactometer served as treatment arm with the 3 arms accommodating the 3 test substances, respectively and the 4<sup>th</sup> arm as control. Various concentrations (1, 2 and 3% V/V) of the essential oils were evaluated for fumigant and contact toxicity against <em>T. castaneum </em>at 8, 16 and 24 hours durations. The results obtained showed that <em>T. castaneum</em> spent significantly (p&lt;0.05) more time (min) in the control arm than the 3 arms accommodating the essential oils. Similarly, significantly (p&lt;0.05) more number of entries were made by the insect into the control arm compared with the test arms. The application of the essential oils significantly (p&lt;0.05) caused higher mortality at 8, 16 and 24hrs than the control for both fumigant and contact tests. The mortality of the <em>T. castaneum </em>increased with increase in the concentration of the essential oils. The 3% concentrations of the oil extracts significantly caused the highest mortality, 67.23±8.72, 69.22± 18.74 and 79.55±9.29% by <em>A. indica, D. tripetala</em> and <em>J. curcas, </em>respectively after 24 hours application in fumigant test. The result also indicated that the contact application of <em>A. indica, D. tripetala </em>and <em>J. curcas </em>at 3% concentrations resulted in 63.07±6.55, 70.10±2.51 and 67.4±4.06% mortality of <em>T. castaneum, </em>respectively. The results suggest that the oil extracts from <em>A. indica, J. curcas </em>and <em>D. tripetala </em>can be used for effective management of <em>T. castaneum </em>infesting stored products.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Microbiological Quality Associated with Ready- to- Eat Bush Meat Sold at Rumuokoro Market in Rivers State 2021-12-08T05:18:12+00:00 I. M. Ikeh B. C. Anele U. A. Ogbodo <p>The study was carried out to investigate the Microbiological quality of microorganisms associated with ready-to-eat bush meat sold at Rumuokoro market in Rivers state. Totally 24 samples were collected and analyzed using different media such as Nutrient agar for Total aerobic plate count (TAPC), MacConkey agar for the coliform count, Eosin methylene blue for Escherichia coli (EC), and Potato Dextrose Agar for Fungal count (FC) and ten (10) fold serial dilution was used. <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp, <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp, <em>Bacillus </em>spp, and <em>Escherichia coli </em>were isolated. The total aerobic plate count (TAPC), <em>E. coli </em>count (EC)-Coliform count (CC), and Fungal count (FC) isolated from antelope were higher when compared to grass-cutter so there was a significant difference (P &lt;0.005). The occurrence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from antelope (26.9%) was higher when compared to grass- cutter (25.0%). However the occurrence of <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp and<em> Bacillus </em>spp isolated from Antelope (23.1% and 30.8%) were higher when compared to grass- cutter (12.5% and 18.5%) while the occurrence of the above organisms isolated on both Antelope is significantly difference (P&lt;0.005) from grass cutter. But the occurrence of <em>Aspergillus</em> spp and <em>Penicillium</em> spp were higher in grass cutter sample (57.1%) and (42.9%) compared to antelope (55.6%) and (44.4%) respectively, although the mean difference was statistically significant (P&lt;0.005) so there was significant difference. It is hereby recommended that most handlers should always wash hands before and after handling the meat as improper hand washing is the number one cause of food borne illness. Consumers of such meat should learn food hygiene practices such as, soaking the meat in warm salt solution, proper washing and well cooked before consumption.</p> 2021-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Two Bony Fish (Catfish and Tilapia) from Orashi River in Rivers State, Nigeria 2022-01-03T11:19:20+00:00 N. E. Okwodu P. U. Okorie B. E. B. Nwoke <p>The research was intended to study the influence of human and industrial activities on the Orashi River and two bony fish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em> and <em>Tilapia nilotica).</em> Three groups are observed to have impacted the environment – Oil/gas industries, tyre burning from abattoir, untreated human and animal waste from settlers and the abattoir.&nbsp; The study was carried out from September 2019 to August 2020. The mean concentrations of the parameters studied in some samples were close to or exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) recommended limits for drinking water and seafood. The results from this study have provided information on the heavy metals profile on the fish of the river.&nbsp; The level of heavy metals in the muscle of Catfish and Tilapia showed a range of Cadmium in Catfish (1-3.9mg/kg and Tilapia (0.1-4.2mg/kg) with the highest level occurring in station 2 (3.47mg/kg for Catfish and 3.39mg/kg for Tilapia) which is high with regard to FAO 1983<sup>5</sup>, FAO/WHO 1089<sup>6</sup>, EEC 2005<sup>4</sup> permissible limit of 0.01mg/l and USEPA SQG (1mg/kg) level in seafood. The levels of essential heavy metals in fish muscle were Copper (Catfish-10.9-33mg/kg, Tilapia -17.3-40.6mg/kg), Iron (Catfish-1.0-2.5mg/kg, Tilapia -0.1-5.6mg/kg) were within the FAO 1983 permissible limit while Zinc (Catfish-22-213.2mg/kg) and Tilapia (30.1-196mg/kg) exceeds the limit in some stations. Catfish muscles recorded higher mean value (127.12mg/kg) for all heavy metals than tilapia (44.03mg/kg) and the sequence is Copper &gt; Zinc &gt; Iron &gt; Cadmium. The concentration of heavy metals in Orashi River is in the sequence: Sediment &gt; Catfish &gt; Tilapia &gt;Water. The Total Heavy metal concentration in muscle of Catfish (0.5-1.8mg/kg) and Tilapia (0.1-3.8mg/kg) were within permissible limit.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey of External Parasites of Wild Birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria 2022-01-17T06:41:50+00:00 Assam Assam <p><strong>Aims: </strong>As wild birds interact with poultry the likelihood of exchange of external parasites between wild birds and poultry highlights the need to understand wild bird parasites so as to reduce cross infection at the wild bird-poultry interface. There is paucity of data on external parasites of wild birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of external parasites among wild birds in Kaduna State.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out in Kaduna State, Nigeria between March, and June 2012.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Wild birds were captured and examined for external parasites by visual and microscopic examination. The data were analyzed using Quantitative Parasitology software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 233 wild birds representing 56 species and 25 families examined, the ectoparasite prevalence was 10.7% (25/233). The ectoparasites identified were <em>Menacanthus</em> spp (0.9%), <em>Amblyomma</em> <em>variegatum</em> (0.9%), <em>Argas persicus</em> (3.4%), <em>Gonides gigas</em> (2.1%) and <em>Rhipicephalus</em> spp (2.6%). <em>Streptopelia senegalensis</em> and <em>Chalcomitra senegalensis</em> were infested with <em>Amblyomma varigatum</em> while <em>Numida meleagris</em> and <em>Ploceus cucullatus</em> had <em>Rhipicephalus</em> spp.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first report to the best of our knowledge of hard tick infestation of free flying birds in Kaduna State. This study establishes baseline data for future study of wild bird host-parasite interaction in Nigeria. There is need for more studies on external parasites of wild birds to understand their impact on the survival of wild bird species in Nigeria.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Structure of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in Azagny Channel (Côte d’Ivoire) 2022-01-18T04:26:04+00:00 Yao Aristide Konan Bakary Coulibaly Tanoh Marius Kamelan Touplé Sibiri Koné Roméo N’guessan Lozo Raphaël N’doua Etilé Essecthi Paul Kouamelan <p>The Azagny Channel is an estuarine ecosystem connecting Ebrié Lagoon to Bandama River estuary and it is adjacent to Azagny National Park. The aim of this study was to provide the first data on diversity and structure of macroinvertebrates in this estuarine area. Physicochemical parameters were measured monthly in three sampling stations S1, S2 and S3, and the benthic Macroinvertebrates was collected using a Van Veen grab. A total of 28 taxa distributed among 20 families and 11 orders belonging to Annelida, Mollusca, Crustacean and Insecta were collected. The taxonomic richness and diversity were higher in S1 compared to S2 and S3, probably due to its proximity to Bandama estuary. The relative abundance revealed that mollusks represented mainly by <em>Pachymelania aurita</em> (16.04%), <em>P. fusca</em> (15.83%), <em>Anodonta anatina</em> (13.02%) dominated the species assemblage; followed by crustaceans with <em>Macrobrachium vollenhovenii</em> (31.87%) and <em>Potamon</em> sp. (5.01%). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the main factors that influenced macroinvertebrates distribution in Azagny Channel were conductivity, salinity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). There is a strong correlation between these three abiotic factors and their influence on species assemblage would be linked to proximity of study area to Atlantic Ocean. These findings provide valuable information that can be used to establish biotic indices to monitor the water quality of Azagny Channel.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##